Hazardous Chemical Summaries


This section of the online hazard manual for the Introductory Biology Program is designed to be used in conjunction with the section on lab hazards for the courses and with the online MSDS sheets. It lists the hazardous chemicals used in the program and summarizes the specific hazards. Read the appropriate sections for chemicals in use in the lab before conducting, prepping, or teaching the lab exercises.

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Hazard summaries for chemicals used in the Introductory Biology Labs acetic acid, glacial

aceto-carmine

aceto-orcein

acetone

acetaldehyde

ammonium choride

ammonium hydroxide

ammonium oxalate

benedict's reagent

biuret

boric acid

bromothymol blue

butanol

calcium chloride

carmine

catechol

chloroform

collidine

congo red

cupric sulfate

diethyl ether

epinephrine

ethanol

ethidium bromide

F.A.A.

feric chloride

formaldehyde

hydrochloric acid

lactic acid

lugol's - IKI

Methanol

Methylene blue

Neutral red

Ninhydrin

Petroleum ether

Phoroglucinol

Phosphoric acid

Potassium hydroxide

Potassium iodate

potassium permanganate

sodium fluoride

sodium hydroxide

sodium hypochlorite

sodium perchlorate

Sulfuric acid

tetrazolium

xylene


ACETIC ACID, GLACIAL (POISONOUS CORROSIVE):

Acute Effects: Ingestion may be fatal! Symptoms include sore throat, vomiting and diarrhea. Ingestion of 1.0 milliliter (ml) may cause esophageal perforation. Vapor inhalation damages the respiratory tract lining and causes breathing difficulty. Concentrations are inadequately detected by odor or irritation. Contact may cause serious skin damage. Concentrated solutions making eye contact may cause blindness. Vapors irritate eyes. Chronic: May cause skin darkening, dental erosion and chronic upper respiratory tract inflammation.

First Aid: Get medical help! For inhalation, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. For contact, wash affected area with large amounts of water (at least 15-20 minutes). If ingested, do not induce vomiting. Give large quantities of milk or water.

Flammable: Combustible.

Cleanup: Ventilate and evacuate the area. Wear protective gear. Shut off ignition sources. Use water spray to disperse vapors. Dilute to nonflammable mixtures with water. Absorb with an inert material. Place in a closed container for disposal. Use nonsparking tools. Avoid flushing to sewer.

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ACETO-CARMINE (








ACETONE (FLAMMABLE): In chromatography solvent, spectrophotometer blanks and pigment extracts. Toxic effects may be enhanced if alcoholic beverages are used.

Acute: Inhalation irritates nose, throat and mucous membranes. Inhalation or ingestion may cause dizziness, dullness and headache. May act as a narcotic. Contact defats skin, causes redness, pain, drying and cracking. Eye contact is irritating. Chronic: Severe irritation or dermatitis.

First Aid: If inhaled, move to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. If ingested, and victim is conscious, give 2 glasses of water and induce vomiting. For contact, wash area for at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water. Remove contaminated shoes and clothing. Get medical aid.

Flammable: Vapor/air mixtures above the flash point [0oF] may be explosive. Use water to flush spills and to dilute to non-flammable concentrations. Incompatible with oxidizing materials, chloroform, alkalies, acids and potassium t-butoxide.

Clean-up: Wear protective gear for toxic vapors (goggles, rubber gloves and boots, respirator, apron). Remove ignition sources and isolate the spill. Recover liquid for reclamation, or absorb with an inert material and hold for disposal. Do not flush to sewer. Do not wear contact lenses.

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AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE (POISONOUS CORROSIVE): Exceptional health and contact hazard! May be fatal if swallowed, causes burns and vapor is extremely irritating.

Acute Health Effects: Inhalation may severely irritate or burn the respiratory tract, cause pulmonary edema and inflammation of the lungs. Contact may cause severe irritation and burns. Eye contact may cause permanent corneal damage and blindness. Ingestion may severely burn the mouth and stomach and may be fatal.

First Aid: Call a physician! If ingested, do not induce vomiting! If conscious, give large amounts of water followed by diluted vinegar, fruit juice or egg whites beaten with water. If inhaled, move victim to fresh air and provide respiratory aid if needed. For contact, flush area with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes and wash before reuse.



Flammable: Flammable vapors may form an explosive mixture with air. Produces toxic ammonia and hydrogen gases if ignited. Incompatible with acids, alkali metals, strong oxidizing agents, bromine, chlorine, aluminum, copper, brass, bronze, mercury and dimethyl sulfate.

Clean-up: Wear full protective clothing and a respirator. Stop leak if it can be done safely. Ventilate area. Neutralize with dilute HCL, vinegar or commercial caustic neutralizer and flush to sewer.

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AMMONIUM OXALATE :




BENEDICT'S (CORROSIVE): Contains sodium citrate, dihydrate, sodium carbonate and cupric sulfate. Persons with Wilson's disease should avoid contact.

Acute Effects: Inhalation irritates nasal membranes and upper respiratory tract, causes coughing, nausea, vomiting, sore throat and pulmonary edema. Skin contact may cause itching, redness and dermatitis. Eye contact may result in blurred vision, burns, conjunctival edema and corneal opacification. Ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting, headache, ataxia, dizziness, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, esophageal perforation and salivation. Chronic Effects: Irritation of the upper respiratory tract, dermatitis and conjunctivitis. Ingestion impairs calcium and iron absorption. May be fatal in persons with Wilson's disease.

First Aid: If inhaled, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. For contact, wash area with large amounts of water (at least 15-20 minutes). If ingested give water or milk and allow vomiting to occur (do not induce vomiting). Examine mouth and throat for corrosive injury, irrigate affected areas with a 1% solution of acetic acid until alkali is neutralized. Avoid gastric lavage or emesis. Maintain airway and treat for shock. If vomiting occurs, keep head below hips to help prevent aspiration. Get medical aid!

Flammable: Not flammable. It is a reactivity hazard (check MSDS).

Clean-up: Treat aqueous solution spills as a corrosive alkali (base).

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BIURET (POISONOUS CORROSIVE): Contains cupric sulfate and potassium hydroxide.

Acute Effects: May severely burn. Causes blindness. Ingestion burns and scars mouth, throat and stomach. May be fatal. Inhalation varies from mild irritation to serious upper respiratory tract damage. Severe pneumonitis, damage to capillaries, liver and kidneys occurs, as does central nervous system excitation followed by depression. Chronic Effects: Inhalation may cause perforation of the nasal septum, salivation, nausea, vomiting, gastric pain, hemorrhagic gastritis and bloody diarrhea. Prolonged exposure destroys tissue.

Flammable: Not flammable but highly corrosive. Releases flammable and explosive hydrogen gas when in contact with metal alloys (lead, tin, etc).

First Aid: For contact, flush area for at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water. Use a weak vinegar rinse to neutralize the potassium hydroxide. If ingested, dilute with several glasses of water followed by citrus juice if available. For copper poisoning, give calcium disodium edetate or penicillamine.



Clean-up: Wear goggles, apron and rubber gloves. Dilute with water and neutralize with 6M (molar) hydrochloric acid (HCL) or sodium bisulfate. Flush to sewer with large amounts of water. Wash thoroughly after handling.

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BORIC ACID (POISON):

Acute Effects: Inhalation may cause mucous membrane irritation, skin excoriations, fever and anuria. An eye and skin irritant. Easily absorbed through damaged skin. A nephrotoxin; ingestion may cause hemorrhagic gastritis, bloody diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, epigastric pain, insomnia, tremors, convulsions and central nervous system depression. Erythroderma may precede desquamation, excoriations, blistering, bullae, lesions, acidosis, intravascular coagulation, fever and kidney and liver damage. Victim may go into shock, death can occur within 0-7 days. Bronchopneumonia, meningitis or other infections may be fatal.

First Aid: Inhaled: Move to fresh air and give aid. Contact: Flush with water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing. Ingested: If victim is conscious and not convulsive, give 2-4 glasses of water and induce vomiting. Keep head below hips to prevent aspiration. Treat for shock and get medical aid.

Flammable: Negligible.

Clean-up: Wear full protective gear. Sweep up powder spills and place in fiberboard container for disposal. Neutralize liquid spills with absorbent and place in container for later disposal.

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BROMOTHYMOL BLUE: A possible hazard; solvent is dilute sodium hydroxide - corrosive.

Acute Health Effects: Possible irritant, health effects inadequately investigated. However the solvent, sodium hydroxide, is corrosive. Take the steps in an exposure situation as if it were sodium hydroxide.

First Aid: If inhaled, move to fresh air and give aid if needed. If powder is ingested, give 2-4 glasses of milk or water and induce vomiting. If liquid is ingested, give 2-4 glasses of water or milk and do not induce vomiting. For contact, flush with water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical aid.

Flammable: Negligible hazard.

Clean-up: Absorb with vermiculite and place in a plastic container for later disposal. Keep out of sewers, waterways and water sources.

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CALCIUM CHLORIDE (CORROSIVE ACID): Possible mutagen.

Acute Effects: Inhalation may cause choking, coughing, chest tightness, headache, dizziness, weakness, hypotension, pulmonary edema, cyanosis, apnea and frothy sputum. Dyspnea and hemoptysis may occur weeks after exposure. Ingestion may cause vomiting, bloody diarrhea, burns to the mouth, pharynx and stomach, low blood pressure, brownish or yellowish stains in the mouth and throat and asphyxia from edema of the glottis. Skin contact may show brown or yellow stains, deep burns that heal slowly and scar extensively. Vapors irritate the eyes, liquid may permanently damage corneas.

Chronic Effects: Dermatitis, tooth erosion, jaw necrosis, bronchial irritation, cough and bronchial pneumonia and conjunctivitis. Animal tests indicate positive mutagenic or tumorigenic properties.

First Aid: Get medical aid! If inhaled move to fresh air and give respiratory aid. If ingested, do not induce vomiting! If conscious and not convulsive, give large amounts of water. For contact, direct a stream of water under clothing while removing it and flush with water for at least 15 minutes. Cover burns securely, not tightly, with a sterile, dry dressing. For eye contact, hold lids apart and irrigate with water for at least 15 minutes. Loosely cover burns with a sterile, dry dressing.

Flammable: Negligible.

Clean-up: Ventilate the area. Wear full protective gear. Take up spills with inert material and place into container for later disposal. Dispose in accordance with all regulations.

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CARMINE (IRRITANT AND POSSIBLE BIOHAZARD): May harbor Salmonella cubana. Salmonellosis has been reported after exposure to carmine.

Acute Health Effects: An eye irritant in dust form. Large doses in lactating females may adversely affect nursing infants. Turns urine greenish or bluish. No data is available on other acute or chronic effects.

First Aid: If inhaled, move victim to fresh air and provide respiratory aid if needed. For contact, flush area at least 15 minutes with water. If ingested, give 2-4 glasses of water and induce vomiting.

Flammable: Unknown fire and explosion hazard.

Clean-up: Sweep up powder and place in a container for later disposal. Wear dust mask and gloves. Wear splash-proof or dust-resistant goggles to prevent eye contact, do not wear contact lenses.

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CATECHOL (CORROSIVE NEUROTOXIN): An eye, skin and mucous membrane irritant, and a central nervous system depressant. An allergen that is easily absorbed through inhalation, ingestion or skin contact. May cause convulsions and blood damage.

Acute Effects: Inhalation may irritate the throat, nose and mucous membranes and cause coughing, labored breathing, unconsciousness, pulmonary edema, liver, kidney and brain damage. Ingestion may burn the mouth and throat, cause sweating, thirst, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cyanosis, excitation, hypotension, abdominal pain, convulsions, stupor, shock, coma and liver and kidney damage. Avoid skin contact! Rapid absorption is the primary route of entry. Contact may produce painless erythema or corrosion, hemolysis and/or pulmonary edema as well as symptoms noted for ingestion. Eye contact may cause redness, pain and blurred vision. Chronic Effects: Inhalation has same symptoms as acute exposure. Contact may cause dermatitis, anorexia, weight loss, weakness, muscle pain, liver damage and dark urine. Eye contact may cause conjunctivitis.

First Aid: For contact, remove contaminated clothing and wash skin with soap and water for at least 20 minutes followed by repeated applications of castor oil. For eye contact, wash immediately for at least 15-20 minutes. Get medical attention. For ingestion, give 2-4 glasses of water and induce vomiting. For inhalation, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed.

Flammable: Negligible. Extinguish with dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol foam. Avoid breathing vapor or dust. Use particulate respirator, goggles, gloves and lab coat.

Clean-up: Do not touch! Absorb liquid spills with inert material, pick up dry spills with a clean scoop. Hold all waste in a clean container for proper disposal.

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CHLOROFORM (POISON, POSSIBLE CARCINOGEN): In chromatography solvent. DNA isolation labs. Wash thoroughly after handling. Persons with disorders of the skin, eyes, liver, kidney or respiratory system may be more susceptible to the effects of this substance.

Acute Health Effects: May be fatal if ingested, inhaled or absorbed! Inhalation causes respiratory tract irritation, headache, drowsiness, vomiting, dizziness and unconsciousness. Ingestion burns the mouth and throat, causes chest pain, vomiting and unconsciousness. Skin contact is irritating. Eye contact may irritate the conjunctiva. Chronic Health Effects: May cause death from heart arrhythmias and kidney or liver damage. May also cause dermatitis and malignant tumors.

First Aid: If inhaled, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid. If ingested, and victim is conscious, give 2 glasses of milk or water and induce vomiting. For contact, rinse area with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing. Get medical aid.

Flammable: Slight fire hazard at high temperatures. Thermal decomposition may release toxic gases (carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, chlorine, phosgene). Incompatible with strong caustics and chemically active metals (aluminum, magnesium, sodium, potassium), acetone, fluorine, methanol, sodium methoxide, dinitrogen tetroxide, tert-butoxide and trisopropylphosphine.

Clean-up: Wear protective gear suitable for toxic fluids or vapors (safety goggles, respirator, rubber gloves, boots and apron). Ventilate the area and isolate the spill. Remove ignition sources. Recover the liquid, or absorb with an inert material and collect as hazardous waste. Do not flush to sewer. Do not wear contact lenses.

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CONGO RED: In an ethanol solvent. Review hazards of ethanol.

Acute Health Effects: Probable carcinogen and possible allergen.. May be harmful if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. In an ethanol solution. Review effects of ethanol exposure.

First Aid: Review first aid measures for ethanol.

Flammable: Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions. Extinguish with water, carbon dioxide, dry chemical, or foam. Wear protective clothing. Highly flammable in ethanol solution.



Clean-up: Wear protective gear. Sweep up powder, place in a bag and hold for waste disposal. Ventilate area and wash spill site after pickup is complete. For liquid spills treat as for an ethanol spill.

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ETHER (DIETHYL ETHER) (POISON, FLAMMABLE): In spectrophotometer blanks and pigment extracts.

Acute Health Effects: May be fatal if inhaled or ingested! Inhalation may also cause headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, narcosis, suffocation, low blood pressure and central nervous system depression. Readily absorbed on contact, may irritate eyes. Ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting and central nervous system depression. Chronic Health Effects: Skin sensitization.



First Aid: If inhaled, move to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. If ingested, give milk or water and induce vomiting. For contact, wash skin or eyes for at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water. Get medical attention.

Flammable: Flash point is -49oF. Extremely flammable and highly volatile. May form explosive peroxides if heated or in an anhydrous state. Use alcohol foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide to extinguish (water may be ineffective). Vapors can travel along surfaces to distant ignition sources and flash back. Containers exposed to heat may explode. Contact with oxidizers may cause fire. Produces toxic carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases. Incompatible with strong bases, strong oxidizing agents, aluminum, and combustible materials.

Clean-up: Wear protective gear suitable for toxic fluids or vapors. Shut off ignition sources and isolate the spill. Use water spray to reduce vapors. Absorb with an inert material and place in a container for later disposal. Flush area with water.

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ETHANOL (POISONOUS, FLAMMABLE SOLVENT):

Acute Effects: Ingestion may be fatal. May be absorbed through the skin. Vapor and mist irritates the eyes, mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. May cause eye damage, nausea, dizziness, headache and central nervous system depression. Chronic: Liver, heart and kidney damage.



First Aid: For contact, flush with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes, and wash before reusing. If inhaled, move to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. For ingestion, give large amounts of water and call a physician.

Flammable: Flash point 48oF. Use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, alcohol or polymer foam. Vapor may travel to distant ignition source and flash back.



Cleanup: Shut off ignition sources and evacuate the lab. Wear rubber boots and rubber gloves. Absorb with an inert material and place in a closed container for disposal. Use nonsparking tools. Ventilate area and wash spill site after material pickup is complete.

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ETHIDIUM BROMIDE (MUTAGEN POSSIBLE CARCINOGEN): Harmful if inhaled, ingested or absorbed.

Acute Health Effects: Contact may irritate skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Inhalation may irritate the upper respiratory tract. Chronic Health Effects: Mutagen and possible carcinogen. May cause birth defects and malignant tumors.



First Aid: For inhalation, remove to fresh air and give respiratory help. If ingested, give 2-4 glasses of milk or water and induce vomiting. For contact, wash skin or eyes for at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water. Remove contaminated shoes and clothing and clean thoroughly before reuse. Get medical aid.

Flammable: Not applicable. Releases toxic nitrogen oxides, hydrogen bromide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

Clean-up: Avoid contact, wear protective devices suitable for toxic fluids or vapors (safety goggles, respirator, rubber gloves and boots, apron etc.). Isolate and neutralize the spill with bleach before flushing to the sewer with excess water. For powder spills, pick up material with clean shovel and place into a clean, dry container for later disposal. Flush area with bleach solution followed by water.

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HYDROCHLORIC ACID (POISONOUS CORROSIVE): Liquid and mist may severely burn all tissues. May be fatal if swallowed. Avoid contact, wash thoroughly after handling. Persons with pre-existing skin or eye disease may be more susceptible to the effects of this substance.

Acute Health Effects: Corrosive! Vapor inhalation may cause coughing, choking and inflammation of the nose, throat and upper respiratory tract. Vapors may cause lung damage. Ingestion causes immediate pain and burns the mouth, throat, esophagus and gastrointestinal tract. May cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

Contact may cause redness, pain and severe burns. Concentrated HCL causesdeep ulcers and skin discoloration. Vapors and splashes are irritating and may severely burn and damage eyes. Chronic Health Effects: Vapor exposure may erode teeth. Because of its corrosive properties, chronic exposures are rare.



First Aid: If inhaled, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. If ingested, do not induce vomiting! If victim is conscious, give large quantities of milk or water. For skin contact, wash at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water. Remove contaminated shoes and clothing and wash before reuse. For eye contact, flush with water at least 15 minutes or until no trace of chemical remains. Get medical help!!

Flammable: Reacts with metals to release flammable hydrogen gas and when heated, releases toxic hydrogen chloride. Use water spray to extinguish. Highly reactive with strong bases, metals, metal oxides, hydroxides, amines, carbonate and other alkaline materials. Incompatible with cyanides, sulfides, sulfites and formaldehyde.

Clean-up: Wear protective gear suitable for toxic or corrosive fluids or vapors (goggles, respirator, rubber gloves and boots, apron etc.). Isolate the spill. For small spills, neutralize with alkaline material (soda ash, lime etc) and flush to the sewer with excess water. For large spills, neutralize with alkaline material and pick-up with absorbent material. Provide forced ventilation to dissipate fumes and dispose in an approved waste facility or sewer the neutralized slurry with excess water if local ordinances allow.

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LACTIC ACID (CORROSIVE): In aceto-orcein stain. Wash after handling.

Acute Health Effects: Contact may severely irritate and burn. Ingestion may burn and irritate mouth and stomach.

First Aid: For contact, immediately flush area with water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated shoes and clothing and wash before reuse. In inhaled, move victim to fresh air and provide aid if needed. If ingested, and victim is conscious, give large amounts of water and get medical aid.

Flammable: Closed containers exposed to heat may explode.

Cleanup: Wear self-contained breathing apparatus and full protective gear. Stop leak if it can be done safely. Ventilate the area. Neutralize spill with soda ash or lime. Use a clean shovel to place neutralized material into a clean, dry container for proper disposal. Flush spill area with water. Dispose in accordance with applicable federal, state and local regulations.

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LUGOL'S - IKI (POISONOUS): Persons with iodine allergies or disorders involving the respiratory system, eyes, skin or thyroid should avoid contact.

Acute Health Effects: Easily absorbed; targets eyes, respiratory system, skin, central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Irritates eyes and nose, causes headache, tight chest, skin burns, vomiting, abdominal pain, skin rash and diarrhea. Avoid ingestion, skin contact and inhalation.

First Aid: For contact, flush 15 minutes with large amounts of water. If ingested, give 2-4 glasses of water and induce vomiting. If inhaled, move to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed.

Flammable: Not flammable.

Cleanup: Wear protective gear and wash after handling. Cover with a reducer (hypo, bisulfite or ferrous salt) and mix with water. Add 3M sulfuric acid to acidify and then neutralize with soda ash. Flush neutralized slurry to sewer with excess water.

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METHANOL (FLAMMABLE POISON):

Acute Effects: Inhalation and ingestion may be fatal! Inhalation also causes low blood pressure, headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, narcosis, central nervous system depression and suffocation. May irritate skin and eyes and temporarily damage corneas. Ingestion may cause blindness, vomiting, headaches, dizziness and gastrointestinal irritation. Chronic Effects: Dermatitis, kidney and liver damage.



First Aid: For inhalation, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. If ingested, and victim is conscious, give 2 glasses of water and induce vomiting. For contact, wash skin or eyes for at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water. Remove contaminated shoes and clothing. Get medical aid.

Flammable: Flash point is 54oF. Water may be ineffective so use alcohol foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide in a fire. Vapors may flow to distant ignition sources and flash back. Containers exposed to heat may explode. Contact with strong oxidizers may cause ignition. Methanol burns with a nearly invisible flame. It produces carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and formaldehyde gases.



Cleanup: Wear self-contained breathing apparatus and full protective gear. Shut off ignition sources and isolate the spill. Use water spray to reduce vapors. Absorb with vermiculite and place in a container for later disposal. Flush spill area with water spray.

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METHYLENE BLUE: In an ethanol solvent. Review hazards of ethanol.

Acute Health Effects: May be harmful if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. Review effects of ethanol exposure.

First Aid: Review first aid measures for ethanol.



Flammable: Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions. Extinguish with water, carbon dioxide, dry chemical, or foam. Wear protective clothing. Highly flammable in ethanol solution.

Clean-up: Wear protective gear. Sweep up powder, place in a bag and hold for waste disposal. Ventilate area and wash spill site after pickup is complete. For liquid spills treat as for an ethanol spill.

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NEUTRAL RED: In ethanol solvent.

Acute Health Effects: Inadequate hazard data, probable irritant. Highly toxic if injected intravenously. Review health hazards for ethanol.

First Aid: If inhaled, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. If ingested, give 2-4 glasses of water or milk and induce vomiting. For contact, wash at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water. Review first aid procedures for ethanol.

Flammable: Highly flammable in solution; not flammable in powder form.

Clean-up: Sweep powder and put in a fiberboard container for disposal. Wear a dust mask and gloves. Treat spills in solution as for ethanol.

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NINHYDRIN (POISONOUS FUMES): In ethanol. Photoreactive. Keep in dark bottle or wrapped in foil.

Acute Health Effects: Harmful if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. Causes eye and skin irritation. Irritating to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. Causes reddening of the skin. May have other, currently undocumented effects. Review effects of ethanol exposure.



First Aid: For contact, immediately flush with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing. If inhaled, remove to fresh air and provide respiratory assistance if needed. Call a physician. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. Review first aid measures for ethanol.

Flammable: Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions. Extinguish with water, carbon dioxide, dry chemicalpowder, alcohol or polymer foam. Avoid contact. Do not breathe vapors. Wear protective clothing. Highly flammable in ethanol solution.

Clean-up: Wear goggles, rubber boots and gloves. Sweep up powder and place in a bag. Hold for waste disposal. Avoid raising dust. Ventilate area and wash spill site after material pickup is complete. For liquid spills treat as for an ethanol spill.

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PETROLEUM ETHER (POISON, FLAMMABLE): Drinking alcohol may enhance toxic effects.

Acute: May be fatal if inhaled or ingested! Inhalation causes nausea, vomiting, cough, bloody sputum, bronchial pneumonia and pulmonary edema. Contact drys and irritates. Vapors irritate eyes but splashes cause little damage. Ingestion may cause central nervous system depression, unconsciousness and ventricular fibrillation. Chronic: Inhalation causes anemia, dizziness, weakness, weight loss, nervousness, limb pains, peripheral numbness and paresthesia. Skin contact causes dermatitis and vapors cause conjunctivitis.

First Aid: If inhaled, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. If ingested, do not induce vomiting! Get medical aid. For contact, wash area with water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation persists, get medical aid.

Flammable: Vapor/air mixtures explosive above flash point, <0oF. Vapors may travel to distant ignition sources and flash back. Use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol foam to extinguish. Incompatible with nitrogen tetroxide and strong oxidants.

Clean-up: Wear protective gear for toxic vapors (respirator, goggles, apron, rubber gloves and boots). Do not wear contact lenses. Shut off ignition sources and isolate the spill. Use water spray to reduce vapors. Absorb with an inert material and place into a container for disposal.

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POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE (POISONOUS CORROSIVE): Persons with disorders of the respiratory tract, skin, or eye should avoid contact.

Acute Health Effects: Inhalation effects vary from mild irritation to serious upper respiratory tract damage. Severe pneumonitis occurs. Ingestion may severely burn mouth, throat and stomach causing scarring and death (lethal dose ~5 grams). Contact may irritate, burn and scar. May irritate, severely burn or blind if contacts eyes. Chronic Health Effects: Tissue destruction.

First Aid: If inhaled, move to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. If ingested, give large quantities of milk or water. Vomiting may occur spontaneously, but do not induce it! Do not give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. For contact, brush dry pieces off skin to minimize thermal reaction with skin moisture or rinse water. Wash skin or eyes for at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water. Remove contaminated shoes and clothing.



Flammable: Contact with water may generate enough heat to ignite combustibles. Corrosive mists are formed during the solution process. May cause fire or explosion if contacts water, acids, flammable liquids and organic halogen compounds. Contact with nitro compounds causes formation of shock sensitive salts. Contact with metals such as aluminum, tin and zinc causes formation of flammable hydrogen gas.

Clean-up: Wear protective gear suitable for corrosive fluids, vapors or dust (safety goggles, respirator, rubber gloves and boots, apron etc.). Isolate the spill, dilute with large quantities of water, neutralize with dilute acetic acid and flush to the sewer with excess water.

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POTASSIUM IODATE (STRONG OXIDIZER):

Acute Effects: Ingestion may irritate gastrointestinal tract, causing nausea, vomiting, headaches and dizziness. Otherwise irritates respiratory tract, skin and eyes. Chronic: Kidney, liver, lungs, blood and central nervous system damage.

First Aid: For contact, flush with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes, and wash before reusing. If inhaled, move to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. For ingestion, give large amounts of water, induce vomiting and call a physician.

Flammable: Strong oxidizer. Contact with other material may cause fire. In case of fire, soak with water.

Cleanup: Wear protective gear. Keep combustibles away from spilled material. With clean shovel, carefully place material into clean, dry container and cover; remove from area. Flush spill area with water. Dispose in accordance with all applicable federal, state and local regulations.

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SODIUM HYDROXIDE (POISONOUS CORROSIVE): Strongly exothermic when solid contacts water. Persons with disorders of the respiratory tract, skin or eyes may be more susceptible.

Acute Effects: Strong corrosive! Ingestion may burn mouth, throat and stomach, cause scarring and death. Skin contact may burn and scar. Contact with eyes is irritating and may cause blindness. Inhalation damage varies from mild irritation to serious upper respiratory tract damage depending upon exposure. Severe pneumonitis may occur. Chronic Health Effects: Prolonged contact with dilute solutions or dust destroys tissue.

First Aid: If inhaled, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. If ingested, do not induce vomiting! If victim is conscious, give 2-4 glasses of milk or water and get medical help. For skin contact, brush dry chemical off to limit thermal reaction with water and skin moisture. Remove contaminated clothing and flush for at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water. For eye contact, flush with water until no trace of chemical remains (at least 15 minutes).

Flammable: Reacts with aluminum, tin and zinc to form flammable hydrogen gas. Contact with water generates large amounts of heat. Incompatible with water, acids, flammable liquids and organic halogen compounds which may cause fire or explosion. Contact with nitro compounds causes shock-sensitive salts to form.

Clean-up: Wear protective gear. Do not wear contact lenses. Sweep, scoop or pick up dry material; avoid raising dust. Place into a closed, metal, container and send to an approved waste disposal facility. Do not flush to the sewer avoid contact with water. Neutralize chemical traces on dry spill site with dilute acid and flush to the sewer with excess water. Absorb aqueous spills with caustic neutralizer and flush neutralized slurry to the sewer with excess water.

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SULFURIC ACID (POISONOUS CORROSIVE): Liquid and mist may severely burn tissues. May be fatal if ingested. Persons with skin or eye disease may be more susceptible to the effects of this substance.

Acute Health Effects: Corrosive! Vapor inhalation may severely irritate respiratory tract. Ingestion may be fatal. Causes immediate pain and burns the mouth, throat, esophagus and gastrointestinal tract. May cause nausea and vomiting and adversely affect kidney function. Contact may cause and severe burns to eyes and skin. Chronic Health Effects: Vapor exposure may cause lung damage.

First Aid: If inhaled, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. If ingested, do not induce vomiting! If victim is conscious, give large quantities of milk or water. For skin contact, wash at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water. Remove contaminated shoes and clothing and wash before reuse. For eye contact, flush with water at least 15 minutes or until no trace of chemical remains. Get medical help!!



Flammable: Reacts with metals to release flammable hydrogen gas. A violent exothermic reaction occurs if mixed with water. Do not get water inside containers. Use dry chemical or carbon dioxide to extinguish fires. Incompatible with water, strong bases, metals, organic materials, strong reducing agents, combustible material and strong oxidizing agents.

Clean-up: Wear protective gear suitable for toxic or corrosive fluids or vapors (goggles, respirator, rubber gloves and boots, apron etc.). Isolate the spill. For small spills, neutralize with alkaline material (soda ash, lime etc). Use clan shovel to place material into a clean, dry container and cover. Do not use water.

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TETRAZOLIUM: Probably harmful if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed.

Acute Health Effects: Mildly toxic. Little data available.

First Aid: If inhaled, move victim to fresh air and give respiratory aid if needed. If ingested, give 2-4 glasses of water of milk and induce vomiting. For contact, flush skin or eyes with water for at least 15 minutes.

Flammable: Not flammable, produces toxic gases (nitrogen oxides, hydrogen chloride).

Clean-up: Wear protective clothing and respirator. With clean shovel, place material into clean, dry container and cover. Remove for proper disposal. Flush spill area with water.

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Last Updated August 25, 1998 by Tonna Harris-Haller